Tuesday, November 7, 2017

Art of Leadership vs. Skill of Management



There once was a very famous horse-breeder and racer in Arabia called Ben Hur.  He provided fast horses and splendid chariots for the most famous races in the world.  He was especially famous for the four-horse chariots.

Ben Hur had three sons whom he had trained well in the art and science of racing horses.  As he grew old, Ben Hur had to decide which of his three sons would lead the family business after him.  So he called his three sons into his room and announced.

“Dear sons, I have taught you well. And each of you is an expert in horse breeding and racing.  Only one of you can eventually run this family business while the other two will have to find other challenges in life.” 

“In order to decide who is the best suited to run this business, I have decided to hold a contest.  In one month from now, the three of you will race your four-horse chariots against one another.  The winner will inherit my business!”

The three sons were very excited to hear what father Ben Hur had to say and readily agreed to the challenge!  The father continued, “I also have one special gift I want to share with you!” 

“Besides being able to select from among the finest horses in our stable, I will give each one of you, one wish from this magic lamp of mine.  Mind you – one wish only!  Use this wish wisely to empower you to win the race!”

The eldest son, Stick Manager was the first to respond. “I will take the four dark angry horses from your North Stable father!”  He then went alone into the room with the magic lamp and wished, “I wish to be blessed with the sharpest whip in the world!  They will drive fear into these great black stallions and surely help me win the race!”

The second son, Carrot Manager was the next to respond. “Father Ben Hur, I will take the four happy brown stallions from Bhutan.”  He then walked alone into the room with the magic lamp and wished, “I wish for the ability to have an endless supply of the tastiest carrots in the world! My happy brown stallions will do anything to get them.  I will bribe my brown steads with delicious carrots and keep them happy to win this race for me!”

Both sons had left and the father looked at his youngest son whom he loved the most.  “What about you Leader Judah?”   “Which horses will you choose and what will you wish for?”
Leader Judah thoughtfully explained, “With your permission father, I would like to work with our four white mustangs.”  His father was surprised.

“You do realize our mustangs are new and from foreign lands Judah.  I’ve heard great stories about them but we’ve not worked enough with them,” continued Ben Hur.

“That’s okay father! Great potential is all that interests me,” said Leader Judah.  He then went into the room with the magic lamp and uttered these strange words, “I wish for the ability to turn into a white mustang anytime I will!”  The magic lamp flashed bright and Leader Judah’s wish was granted.

The next month proved interesting for each of the three sons.
The four dark angry horses started to develop fear from the Stick Manager’s whip. Every time he mounted the chariot, they ran in fear of getting their backs stung with the sharpest and most painful punishment they had ever experienced!  Stick Manager drove them hard every day in practice to prepare for the race.

The four brown stallions on the other hand were having the time of their life!  Every time they needed a delicious carrot, all they needed to do was slow down a bit.  Carrot Manager would produce the tastiest bribe they had ever experienced.  So while the brown horses ran and practiced every day, they were putting on some weight eating all those goodies.

Leader Judah began on day one by turning himself into a white mustang and walking into the stable of the other four mustangs.  They were quite surprised to see him!  He introduced himself as Ben Hur’s son and told them of all the stories how his father and his grand-father and great grand-father had won chariot races with the finest steads from all over Arabia for nearly a hundred years.  The mustangs listened in rapt attention to the tales of the great Arabian horses. 

Leader Judah then went on to describe how over the last ten years, he had seen mustangs in Jordan brought in by the Americans and Spaniards, winning several races - many beating his father’s Arabian horses. He was fascinated and intrigued by how good and fast they were! Leader Judah went on to describe how his father had added the mustangs to Ben Hur Stables to try and improve services to horse racers and continue the glory of being the best in the world. But he also admitted that his father was not getting the results he expected. 

Then Leader Judah told them all about the contest between him and his brothers and how he had wished from the lamp for the ability to turn himself into a mustang, any time he wished.  The mustangs were intrigued and asked him why he asked for such a strange wish?

Leader Judah took a deep breath and said, “This is the only way I would be able to speak with you directly.  And learn from you how we can together win this race and make Ben Hur Stables great again! How I can win with mustangs for the next hundred years, just as we have won with Arabian horses for the past so many years!”

The mustangs were impressed and motivated with Leader Judah’s sincerity and transparency. They were also quite flattered and overwhelmed by his faith in their abilities. The mustangs realized that if Leader Judah inherited Ben Hur Stables, he would be supportive of them and import more mustangs to join them.  They quite liked the warm Arabian climes as opposed to the cold West.  They now really wanted him to win the race as much as he did!

The mustangs slowly began to describe the secrets of their success in races such as the ones in Jordon.  Unlike the Arabian practices, it was sounded like a much more scientific and disciplined regiment.  Judah was fascinated at their description of preparation.

The preparations included a multi-pronged approach - ranging from a diet rich in proteins and low in carbohydrates, to a different kind of rubber on the wheels of the horse-carts to reduce friction, to a training routine which alternated between long cardio routines on one day for stamina and several 200-meter dashes on the other days with short breaks to develop speed.  They also described to Judah how their old masters made special horse-shoes which were lighter and made from a special metal. 

Judah worked with them to work on all of their suggestions.  He also enjoyed the routines and often turned himself into a mustang to race and exercise with them.  He began loving racing as a horse, as much as a charioteer.  Over time, Judah also earned their trust and learned of all their little secrets.  One of them that two of the mustangs were a couple and had been secretly married only a few days ago!

The day of the big race arrived.  A few minutes before the start, each son walked to his horses. 

Stick Manager boldly announced to his four black angry (now quite afraid actually) stallions, “If you don’t run fast today, I swear I will tear your skins apart with my magic whip!”

Carrot Manager lovingly coaxed his brown (now quite overweight) steads, “Win for me my dear team and I’ll give each one of you as many delicious carrots as you can eat!”

Leader Judah turned himself into a white mustang and walked into the stables to find out if his team was rested and ready for the big race.  They seem well-exercised, well prepared and mentally fit.  However, he sensed tension as he trotted into the room.  He candidly asked, “We’ve been friends for a month now.  And we all want to win this race as much.  If there is a problem, tell me now!”

With teary eyes, the prettiest mustang walked up to him and said, “I’m pregnant.  And I’m afraid that in my health condition, I will let all of you down!”  There was a stunned silence in the stable.  Leader Judah took a deep breath and said, “One for all and all for one – I will run in your place!”

“What?” yelled the other mustangs, “You’re not even a proper mustang – you can’t race!” 

“Yes I am a mustang, even if only for a month.  And yes, I can race – You’ve taught me remember?,” declared Leader Judah coolly. “I agree I am not as powerful as the rest of you. But I’ve been working out with you as much this last month.  Moreover, if I’m not on the chariot, we will have less weight to pull.  Most importantly, you’re my friends, and if anything happened to our pretty mustang or her unborn foal, we would never forgive ourselves.”

“With God’s grace, if we win – which we shall I’m sure – then we shall name this baby foal, Judah Ben Hur!!”

All five mustangs neighed a loud cheer that shook the heavens! And they marched confidently into the race-track.

And so it came to pass.

Chariot One with four black horses ran fast.  But their exhaustion and overwork of the last one month with their fear had caught up with them.  They did not perform to their full-potential.

Chariot Two with four brown stallions from Bhutan worked together as one happy team. But they were overweight and slow and kept slowing down for carrots from Manager Carrot.

Chariot Three had a team where all four mustangs had one and one shared goal only – To win the race, to gain glory for mustangs and get more mustangs into Arabia!  They were proud to be led by someone who had sacrificed himself to protect their own.  They raced with a passion rarely seen in the desert sands of Arabia – the father was amazed to see the mustangs perform as one committed team.  He was filled with pride when he saw his dear son leading from the front.  He prayed secretly for their victory – and they did win!  With the lighter weight of the chariot, with the new motivated mustang who led from the front and with a common vision of shared success, there was no way in the world anyone could defeat them.

And so it came to pass – Judah inherited Ben Hur Stables.  Many mustangs were imported and the story of the foal Judah Ben Hur was often repeated to show how leadership always trumps management using carrots or sticks!

Lessons Learned:

1.      Leadership involves deep anticipatory thinking – about taking calculated risks based on potential as opposed to being more efficient with the tried and tested.

2.      Effective Leadership is impossible without strong character – Leaders have deep empathy and often walk in the shoes of their teams to truly understand what motivates them!

3.      Managers buy time and skills.  Leaders engage passions towards a common dream.

4.      In times of crises, Leaders put themselves at risk even if it means leading from the front – this confidence earns them the unswerving loyalty of their teams.

5.      Leadership is much more about relationship building skills than fear and incentives. In sum, LOVE is a Leadership Strategy

Do you agree? Would love to hear reflections and views!

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

New Business Development for Selling Professional Solutions



A short story to illustrate Principles of New Business Development for Selling Professional Business Solutions

Once upon a time, a mother and her school-going daughter went to the marketplace to buy oranges.  
At the marketplace, they saw 4 shops selling oranges. 

  • The first shop was called LOW COST.  This shop had black-board with a chalk message that read, “CHEAPEST ORANGES SOLD HERE!

  • The second shop was called CREDENTIALS.  This shop had a flashing neon signboard with a long list of all the fancy equipment they used to harvest the oranges and to pack and transport the oranges to the shop.

  • The third shop was called CLIENT LIST.  This shop had a big bill-board at the entrance with photographs of a number of pretty Bollywood actresses!  The bill-board read, “BOLLYWOOD ACTRESSES BUY THEIR ORANGES FROM HERE - SO SHOULD YOU!”

  • The fourth shop was called EMPATHY.  This shop had a neatly designed message board that read, “FOR FREE CONSULTATION ON HOW ORANGES CAN MAKE YOU HAPPY, WALK IN NOW!”

Mom was obviously intrigued.  She had a limited budget but did not want to risk buying bad oranges at the LOW COST shop. “Why else, would someone sell at low cost?” she wondered.

She was quite intimidated with all the fancy equipment described at the second shop.  Frankly, she didn’t understand half of the list.  And wasn’t sure if this would help her buy tasty, healthy oranges.   

She didn’t want to appear dumb by asking too much about what she didn’t understand so she decided not to walk into CREDENTIALS. 

The Bollywood actresses’ pictures at the third shop looked gorgeous! She was quite tempted to walk into store CLIENT LIST.  Perhaps the oranges in shop 3 were organic and healthy which is why all the Bollywood actresses went there and looked so good!  

But then the invitation of a free-consultation at shop 4 was tempting.  So she walked in, intrigued, to find out how oranges could make her happy.  She decided she would take a quick look at shop EMPATHY and then perhaps go back to shop CLIENT LIST and buy her oranges.

In shop number 4 called EMPATHY, she found a number of options neatly laid out in counters.  The first counter had a jolly old man demonstrating how a simple juice extractor could serve up a fresh glass of orange juice.  Just adjacent to that was another counter manned by a short, stout lady who exuded so much energy!  She was efficiently taking the orange rinds left over from the orange juice counter and demonstrating how to make marmalade and jams from the rind of the orange.  A bunch of happy teenagers, keen to learn seemed to be enjoying the demonstration.  A third counter was manned by this pimpled boy who neatly pealed the oranges, removed the seeds and put them in small boxes with a toothpick making for an easy snack.  And right beside this boy was another counter serving orange ice-cream with scores of recipe books on how to make sorbets and ice-creams.  And guess what? A pretty Bollywood actress was actually standing there licking an ice-cream at the counter too!  Guess some actresses came to EMPATHY too and relished oranges and orange ice-cream!

The lady noticed her daughter skipping lightly to the light-hearted music playing in the store as a well-dressed man called Mr. NBD walked up to them and began describing the wonderful ways in which oranges could share happiness with all.  He then attentively listened to why the lady wanted to buy oranges.  The woman explained how she was looking to buy them to prepare fresh juice for her family at breakfast. 

The well-dressed man suggested that she should then consider the Valencia variety which was sweet and ideal for breakfast juice. In fact, he suggested that she should use a metal juicer (vs. plastic which is not good for health). 

He then also added that ideally, the lady should consider serving some orange fruit for breakfast on alternate days since the fruit has a lot of fiber that the juice misses out on.  The woman found that very informative.  She knew orange juice has vitamin C, but did not realize the fiber had such health benefits.

The man also described how the woman could actually save some money and enhance her family’s health – by making her own fresh marmalade and jams at home as opposed to buying expensive jams from supermarkets (which are loaded with preservatives to increase shelf life).  “Sodium benzoate is used liberally in bottled jams and that can play havoc on your health you know! On the other hand, fresh orange rind is awesome for you!” he explained.  “The leftover rind from the orange juice can easily be used.”  He wisely pointed to the mother to observe how the short stout lady expertly made the fresh jams and marmalade.  The mother watched with rapt attention as did her daughter.

The recipes looked simple and the book would pay for itself in less than a month the mother figured.  Besides, her daughter may have fun trying to make Jam!

In about half an hour, the lady walked out of EMPATHY STORE with a bagful of oranges, two boxes of freshly pealed fruit with the fibre for the next day’s breakfast, and a recipe book for making jams and marmalade.  She had also taken Mr. NBD’s telephone number to ask him for help if she got stuck when making the marmalade.

Moral of the Story:
Most of us tend to sell solutions predominantly using either or all of 3 C’s – Credentials, Client List or (low) Cost.  These are important, but not sufficient.  They at best demonstrate technical competence. The 4th C in solution selling is the most critical – (instilling) Confidence.  The buyer must believe that she can trust you with not just her fees, but also her reputation.   And that your input is not from a self-serving need to “sell” but a sincere attempt to “help.”  This is so obvious because typically most professional sales have financial and business impacts  several times larger than the fees involved. 

A sincere attempt to help is not possible without investing the time to comprehend the problem at hand, helping the client think through proposed options and then suggesting a solution that reduces uncertainty for the client.  

Closing the sale once both competence and trust are established... is merely a formality!

Sunday, August 3, 2014

National Governance (Over) simplified



There once was a King called Governance.
He had three sons:

  1. Son one was called Capitalist
  2. Son two was called Socialist
  3. Son three was called Pluralist

The king wanted to find a successor to rule his kingdom called World after him.  So he called his three sons and posed them a riddle.

The riddle was this:

3 men are lost in a desert. They are 2 days away from the nearest oasis.  They have only one can of water. 

  • Man one is called Weak - He is so weak that even if he drinks the one can of water, 50% chances are he will die before he makes it to the oasis.
  • Man two is called Average - If he drinks the one can of water, he has a 75% chance of surviving the two day journey to the oasis.  However, a 25% chance he could still die of exhaustion and thirst.
  • Man three is called Strong. He has a 50% chance of surviving the 2 day journey and making it alive to the oasis, even if he has no water.  However, 50% chances are he will die in those two days.  On the other hand, if he consumes the can of water, there is almost a 100% chance he will complete the 2-day journey to the oasis, alive and fit. 
The wise king asked each one of his sons, "If you could choose, whom would you give the water can to?"

Son Capitalist was very logical and clever.  He was the first to answer, "Both Weak and Average could die even if they consume the can of water.  And so could Strong without any water. So I would give the water can to the Strong.  Better to save at least one life with 100% guarantee than risk all three with no certainty!"

Son Socialist was kind-hearted.  He said, "Life is a gift from God. And hope is all we have.  So I would try to keep as many people alive for as long as I can.  Who knows?  Some help could come along the next morning, and by then we would have let one person die, is that even acceptable?"

"I would give the water to the weakest man.  At least that way, we know all three will most likely remain alive till the next morning.  And with some luck, help will come in time and ensure all 3 continue to remain alive.  It is wrong to favour the strong against the weak. My duty as ruler would be to be a safety net for the weakest."

The third son, Pluralist was quiet and in thought.

When the king looked at him, he humbly began, "Obviously any choices we make will be imperfect. And will result in death.” 

“But as human beings, are we in it only to survive?  Do morality, intelligence and creativity have no play here?”

Everybody was now listening to him.

“In my view, water is a common wealth of all three citizens,” Pluralist continued, “So I would consult with all 3 men and ask them if the following would work:

Let half the can of water be given to Strong.  BUT ONLY UPON the condition that he will carry WEAK on his back on the journey to the oasis.”

“Of the balance half can, I would divide it equally among the other 2 men - Average and Weak"
"What would you achieve by that?" asked his brother Socialist.

"A number of things," continued Pluralist.

  1. Everybody gets water - it’s a common resource that everybody has a right to 
  2. With more water comes more responsibility - so I would give more to Strong with the responsibility of helping the Weak
  3. I foster a bonding and mutual responsibility for life and survival among all 3 men
"But what if they all die anyways?" asked Capitalist.

"We will all die one day brother," said Pluralist.  
"With this formula, everybody will certainly have a higher chance of surviving as a community as opposed to as individuals.  Moreover, even if they die eventually, they will die with honour and probably with happiness.” 

”Isn't that what life is all about anyways?"

Everybody was quiet.

The king was not sure whom to handover Kingdom world to.  So he divided his kingdom into three provinces.

  • His eldest son, Capitalist, he handed over America
  • His second son, Socialist, he handed over India
  • His youngest son Pluralist, he handed over Canada
(the purpose of this fictitious story is only to provoke thinking and reflection as opposed to making any judgements about any country or political systems)

Monday, March 10, 2014

Social Entrepreneurship



CHAPTER ONE: Introduction to the Village of Darsanapur

A long time ago, there was a tiny village in India called Darsanapur. 
Darsanapur had a very sad socio-economic make-up. 
There was one very rich landlord who owned all the fields in and around the village.  And the village had about one hundred-odd families of landless labourers who toiled hard in these fields from sunrise to sundown to make a pittance wage from the landlord.
Every day, the labourers toiled hard in the fields to make a minimum wage.  This wage just about allowed them to make ends meet, with no savings.  Many of them could not even eat a daily meal, since the wages they earned were so little, that any other unplanned expense such as sickness or travel left them with no alternative but to skip their mid-day meal.
Now in this village was a small temple in that was managed by a very good-hearted pujari (priest).  Every day, after completing his daily puja (prayers), the pujari walked for several hours to neighbouring villages to beg for alms and food.  Most of what he collected, he brought back and took to the fields to share with some poor farmer who was going hungry.
This routine had been going on for a few years.


CHAPTER TWO: A Visitor

One day, a rich trading merchant moved into the village of Darsanapur.  This merchant was a shrewd businessman who had earned his wealth through hard work and entrepreneurship. He built a big house close to the temple.
The pujari thought he should try his luck and went to beg for alms at the merchant’s house. 
The merchant was a good man and gave the pujari some food in alms. 
The pujari promptly took the food to some hungry farmers in the field.  Within a short while, he was back at the merchant’s house to beg for more.  The merchant was puzzled at first but did not want to offend the pujari so he gave the pujari some more food.  Sure enough, the pujari distributed this additional food to some other hungry farmers and was back at the merchant’s house in no time to ask for more.  The puzzled merchant then asked the pujari why it was that he kept asking for food.  Did he just have a large appetite?
The disheartened pujari then told the merchant all about how there was this one rich landlord in Darsanapur and how he paid only pittance as wage to the landless farmers.  The pujari also described how he walked for several hours every day to get food for them from neighbouring villages. 
The merchant carefully heard all about the pujari’s hard work to collect enough food for the helpless landless farmers of Darsanapur.
Then the merchant gave the pujari ten coins and said, “Go buy a big tiffin box.  So that when you come the next time, you can carry enough food for your friends and you don’t have to walk back and forth from the fields in this scorching sun.”  The pujari gratefully took the ten coins from the merchant. 
The next day, the pujari was back at the merchant’s house begging for alms and food for himself and for the landless farmers.  The merchant asked him for the tiffin box so that he could give him enough food for all.
However, the pujari said, “Dear merchant, forgive me but I did not buy the tiffin box.”  “The pain of seeing hungry farmers was too great for me.  So instead I spent the ten coins on buying fruit and distributed the fruit among farmers for their families.  My heart yearns for them and I could not bring myself to spend money on anything other than on fruit for the poor families.”
The merchant was quiet.  He was thinking hard but did not share his thoughts with the pujari.
He quietly gave the pujari as much food as the pujari could carry and then sent him off on his way.  In a short while, the pujari came back for more food to the merchant’s house.  But found the house locked.  The pujari was shocked and angry! How could the merchant go away?  Didn’t he know that there were so many hungry farmers who could benefit from alms?  In his heart of heart, he could not help but curse the merchant for having deserted the poor farmers.


CHAPTER THREE: The Tour

The merchant had actually not gone away.  He had locked his house in rage that the pujari had violated his trust and not bought the tiffin box with the money.  The merchant was in a shed in his backyard.  He was packing clothes, some supplies and some material for trade for a long tour. 
Early the next morning, the merchant took off in his horse-cart and began a tour that would take him several months to complete.  This tour involved a visit to 30 towns that were close to the village of Darsanapur.
At each town that the merchant went to, he first contacted some of the wealthiest traders and either sold them some goods or purchased some merchandize from them.  This allowed him to make friends with them.  He then would describe to them the plight of the villagers of Darsanapur and asked for their help. Over the months of his travel, within each of the 30 towns the merchant visited, he established trading partners who:

  1. Agreed to trade with him regularly
  2. Agreed to put aside a share of the profits to fund one cartload of food once a month for the poor farmers of Darsanapur.

After about 3 months of this exhausting but profitable tour, the merchant returned back to Darsanapur.  By now, he had a donor committed to supplying food for each day of the month in addition some profitable trade deals.  It was late in the evening when the merchant returned back to Darsanapur.


CHAPTER FOUR: The Return

The next morning, the merchant went to the fields. The landless farmers were quite surprised to see this well-dressed man in the scorching sun. 
The merchant told them of his plans.  “I will ensure that all of you have enough food for lunch every day.  However, I need to have 3 men every-day who will ride to the town I tell you in my horse-cart.  They will then ride back with 2 carts of goods for me and one cart full of food for the village.”
The farmers readily agreed.  Giving up one day of labour was a small price to pay for 3 men to get lunch for all hundred farmers.  The merchant was happy too that he was getting free help to transport his goods – which meant more profit. 
And so it came to pass.  Every day, 3 labourers would ride the merchant’s horse-cart to one of the towns and carry back two carts of goods and one cart of food to Darsanapur.  And the farmers feasted on a hearty lunch every day in the fields.
Everybody was happy!  The farmers for the food, the traders from the neighbouring villages for the business and profits, the merchant for being able to get free labour and a profitable business.  In fact, the landlord was happy too!  The merchant had started buying the produce from the farm and using his newly created transport organization was able to sell farm produce from Darsanapur to the 30 neighbouring towns for higher profits.  This allowed the landlord to make a little more money than he used to in the past. Well, almost everybody was happy – not the pujari.
The pujari was very angry at the merchant.  In the pujari’s view, the merchant was exploiting the poor farmers for personal profit. 
“How dare the merchant ask the farmers to transport his goods for free despite being so wealthy?” thought the pujari to himself.  “And how dare the merchant exploit the charity of his trading partners for personal benefit.  This was so immoral!  Surely the merchant would rot in hell,” he thought to himself.
The pujari remembered the long hard days where he slept on an empty stomach just to make sure that at least some farmers did not go hungry.  However, now the pujari realized that he needed to beg for alms for only himself.  The farmers did not really need any lunch because now they had a cartful of food every day.  They could also save a little money from their wages and use it for emergencies.  So while he was happy that the farmers were not in trouble, he was very angry that the immoral merchant who had denied him food for the farmers on the second day of his visit and who was personally benefiting from all the charity being done by his trading partners, was so popular – not only with the farmers, but also with the wicked landlord. 
But the nice man that he was, the pujari prayed for the merchant every day in the temple, requesting God to forgive the merchant for his immoral and selfish behaviour.


CHAPTER FIVE: Moral of the Story

The Sanskrit word for philosophy or direct vision is Darsana.  This short story is seeking to provoke thoughts around the vision or philosophy of social entrepreneurship. 

5 Key inferences that could be drawn from this story are:

1. Innovation and Entrepreneurship is crucial to impact change in Social Sector


While the pujari had a good heart and worked very hard to help his fellow farmers, he could but make only limited impact on their lives.  It was only the innovation and entrepreneurship demonstrated by the merchant that actually created a sustainable change in the socio-economic landscape of Darsanapur.

2. Critical to engage stake-holders as part of the change management process


Many leading change leaders agree that sustainable change needs the involvement of the stakeholders for whose benefit you are attempting the change.  The merchant ensured that the farmers were in some ways contributing to the process that would help make their lives better.  Pure welfare assistance or hand-outs rarely leads to sustainable change.  It may be wiser to invest resources in teaching people to fish and then motivating them to fish for themselves as opposed to giving out fish as alms!
 
3. Unity is Strength
 
An important extension of the engagement of stakeholders is the notion of community assets.  When you have a community own an asset or process of improvement, each individual looks out for the other and can divide the risks and responsibilities so that no one person is overwhelmed.  This principle is used widely by the Government of India when extending subsidies to self-governed self-help-groups (SHG) as opposed to individuals.

4. Sustainability

Sustainability is an important principle of social entrepreneurship.  The pujari although well-meaning deflected resources away from a tiffin box (that could have been a sustainable solution enabler) to food (that was a short term gain).  Planning for sustainability is cardinal in social enterprise.

5. Generating Surplus is Crucial for Stability
 
Many individuals view the notion of generating a surplus or a profit as being in contradiction with trying to help people.  Somehow, making profits while trying to impact quality of life is viewed as immoral.  The fact is, that profits or surplus allow you to attract strong talent and build organizational strength that brings growth and sustainability to a social enterprise.  As Dan Pallota warns us, “Don’t confuse morality with frugality!”